Over the next ten years, the structure of the Child Tax Credit (CTC) is scheduled to change, complicating efforts to extend enhanced Child Tax Credit benefits or reform the Child Tax Credit for the long-term. Rather than take an all-or-nothing approach or kick the can down the road by relying on temporary expansions, lawmakers could consider alternative options that better target low-income households, retain work incentives, reduce the impact on federal revenue, and provide taxpayers with a stable, consistent tax code.
The 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) expanded the Child Tax Credit beginning in 2018, increasing the maximum credit from $1,000 to $2,000 and the refundable portion of the credit to $1,400 indexed for inflation. It also lowered the starting point for the credit to phase-in to $2,500 of earned income and expanded the phase-out range. The TCJA changes expire after 2025, after which the credit will revert to the policy that prevailed before the TCJA. After 2025, the credit will be worth a maximum $1,000, phasing in at a slightly higher income threshold and phasing out at a significantly lower income threshold.
The American Rescue Plan Act (ARPA) significantly expanded the Child Tax Credit further in several ways, including making the maximum credit more generous, increasing the maximum age of qualifying children, and providing monthly payments. The ARPA also made the full amount of the credit fully available to lower-income households, removing the incentive to work that came with the prior phase-in of the credit. The ARPA changes expire after 2021; starting next year, the credit will revert to the policy set by the TCJA.
While the credit lifts after-tax incomes and, depending on how it is structured, may reduce marginal tax rates on labor and boost economic output, it is important for policymakers to keep in mind that the Child Tax Credit is an inefficient way to boost growth compared to other tax changes that reduce marginal tax rates.
The cost to permanently expand the credit is large. Under current law the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) estimates the Child Tax Credit will cost $43 billion in 2031 after all the expansions have expired. If the ARPA credit as structured in 2021 were made permanent, federal revenues would fall by $207.8 billion in 2031, nearly 5 times the cost of current law. A permanent TCJA credit would reduce federal revenue by about $102.4 billion in 2031, nearly 2.5 times the cost of current law. For comparison, the CBO estimates that in 2031, baseline outlays for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program would be $76.7 billion; the Children’s Health Insurance Fund, $20.1 billion; and refundable Premium Tax Credits, $65.7 billion; for a total of $162.5 billion in that year.
|ARPA Policy||TCJA Policy||Post-TCJA Policy|
|Tax Year(s) in effect||2021||2022 – 2025||After 2025|
|Maximum Credit||$3,000 for children under age 6; $3,600 for children age 6 to 17||$2,000 for children under age 17||$1,000 for children under age 17|
|Amount Refundable||Fully refundable||$1,400, indexed to inflation until it reaches $2,000||Fully refundable|
|Phase-in requirements||No phase-in, fully available to low-income households||Refundable amount calculated by multiplying earned income above the $2,500 by 15 percent||Refundable amount calculated by multiplying earned income above the $3,000 by 15 percent|
|Phaseouts||The expanded $1,600 or $1,000 of credit phases out by $50 for each $1,000 of income above $112,500 for head of household filers and $150,000 for joint filers. The remainder of the credit phases-out the same as TCJA policy||The maximum credit phases out by $50 for each $1,000 of AGI above $200,000 for single filers and $400,000 for married filing jointly||The maximum credit phases out by $50 for each $1,000 of AGI above $75,000 for single filers and $110,000 for joint filers|
|Other||Half of the credit amount will be paid in advance monthly payments with the remainder received when a taxpayer files their tax return|
Source: Internal Revenue Service
The change in baseline policy after 2025 to a smaller and more limited Child Tax Credit makes it significantly more expensive to offer expanded benefits in the latter half of the next decade. Accordingly, lawmakers may consider a more targeted expansion of the Child Tax Credit that retains a phase-in and the resulting work-incentives.
Below we compare continuing the ARPA policy as it exists in 2021, permanence for the TCJA policy, and two more limited expansions that contain elements of the two existing Child Tax Credit designs.
- Permanent American Rescue Plan Act structured credit as in effect in 2021
- Permanent TCJA credit but with the refundability limit immediately lifted to match the $2,000 maximum credit (rather than the $1,400 credit gradually increasing to the $2,000 maximum with inflation)
- Alternative #1: $3,000 maximum credit that phases in with the first dollar of earned income by 15 percent and phases out by $50 for each $1,000 above $112,500 for head of household filers and $150,000 joint filers for children under age 17
- Alternative #2: $3,000 maximum credit with $500 fully available regardless of earned income and the remaining $2,500 phasing in with the first dollar of income by 15 percent and phasing out by $50 for each $1,000 above $112,500 and $150,000 for children under age 17
|Permanent ARPA 2021 policy||Permanent TCJA Policy (with refundability limit set to $2,000)||Alternative #1||Alternative #2|
|GDP||Less than -0.05%||+0.1%||+0.1%||Less than +0.05%|
|GNP||Less than -0.05%||+0.2%||+0.1%||Less than +0.05%|
|Wages||Less than -0.05%||Less than +0.05%||Less than +0.05%||Less than +0.05%|
|Hours Worked||Less than -0.05%||+0.1%||Less than +0.05%||Less than +0.05%|
|Full-Time Equivalent Employment||-38,000||+152,000||+45,000||+7,000|
|Conventional Revenue, 2022 through 2031*||-$1,620.6 billion||-$580 billion||-$956 billion||-$1,044 billion|
|Conventional Revenue in 2031*||-$207.8 billion||-$102.4 billion||-$138.0 billion||-$146.4 billion|
|Percentage change in after-tax income for the bottom quintile, 2031, conventional||+10.0%||+1.3%||+2.4%||+4.1%|
Note: Due to data limitations, we limited the alternative options to children under age 17. *See Appendix Table 1 for complete 10-year score. Comparing the revenue effect in 2031 is a more accurate indicator of how the policies differ in cost due to the changing baseline.
Source: Tax Foundation General Equilibrium Model, August 2021.
Permanent expansion of the ARPA credit as structured in 2021 (so not allowing the underlying TCJA credit to expire) would reduce federal revenues by more than $1.6 trillion over the next decade, while slightly reducing economic output. Full-time equivalent jobs would fall by 38,000, largely driven by a 0.6 percent reduction in hours worked among the first quintile and by a 0.1 percent…
Read More: Child Tax Credit Changes | Temporary Policies Complicate Its Future